化工进展 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (08): 2874-2881.doi: 10.16085/j.issn.1000-6613.2017-0007

• 能源加工与技术 • 上一篇    下一篇

电动汽车电池的发展现状与趋势

华政, 梁风, 姚耀春   

  1. 昆明理工大学真空冶金国家工程实验室, 锂离子电池及材料制备技术国家地方联合工程实验室, 省部共建复杂有色金属资源清洁利用国家重点实验室, 云南 昆明 650093
  • 收稿日期:2017-01-03 修回日期:2017-03-30 出版日期:2017-08-05 发布日期:2017-08-05
  • 通讯作者: 姚耀春,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为锂离子电池材料。 E-mail:yaochun9796@163.com
  • 作者简介:华政(1990-),男,硕士研究生,研究方向为锂离子电池三元正极材料。E-mail:huazheng1202@163.com。
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(51364021)及云南省自然科学基金(2014FA025)项目。

Status and development trend for battery of electric vehicles

HUA Zheng, LIANG Feng, YAO Yaochun   

  1. National Engineering Laboratory for Vacuum Metallurgy, Kunming University of Science and Technology, National and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Lithium-ion Batteries and Materials Preparation Technology, State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clear Utilization, Kunming 650093, Yunnan, China
  • Received:2017-01-03 Revised:2017-03-30 Online:2017-08-05 Published:2017-08-05

摘要: 化石能源短缺和二氧化碳排放是21世纪的巨大挑战,这使得寻找一种替代化石能源作为汽车动力的方式日益重要。动力电池作为电动车行驶里程和安全性能的限制因素,在未来电动汽车的普及方面具有重要作用。本文概述了电动汽车电池的发展历史,重点介绍了下一代锂离子电池体系最有前景的正负极材料和电解质,以及锂离子电池之外全新的电池体系的现状,并指出未来动力电池的发展趋势:近期内,增强高镍正极材料的稳定性和固体电解质的锂离子传导效率,减少硅负极材料的体积效应,可以提高电动汽车的稳定性和安全性;中期内,镁离子电池还存在不确定的副反应,而双锂离子电池在低倍率下已经有超越高镍三元材料能量密度,非常值得关注;长期内,金属-空气电池还属于起步阶段,而锂硫电池减少多晶硫造成的穿梭效应后会有好的应用前景。

关键词: 环境, 电化学, 电解质, 电动汽车电池

Abstract: The shortage of fossil energy and the impact of CO2 emission constitute a major challenge of 21st century,which makes a major incentive to get alternative power source of vehicle propulsion. Power cell,as the limiting factor of driving distance and safety issue of electric vehicles,plays a pivotal role in the upcoming ubiquitous usage of electric transportation. In this review,the improvements of power batteries in design and manufacture along with developments of electric vehicles was presented with an emphasize in introducing both the most promising cathode,anode and electrolyte materials in next generation of lithium-ion batteries and the status of new systems beyond lithium-ion batteries. Moreover,the possible areas of new power cell research were proposed:in the near term,enhancing the stability of Ni-rich cathode material and improving the conductivity of lithium-ion in solid-state electrolyte while reducing the volume effects of silicon anode material are good ways to ensure higher driving distance and better safety; in the medium term,magnesium-ion battery still has many side effects,however,multiple lithium-ion battery has already possessed higher energy than Ni-rich cathode material at low rates,which is worthy of more attention; in the long term,metal-air battery is in the starting point,while Li-S battery has good application future if shuttle effects caused by sulfur polycrystalline are reduced.

Key words: environement, electrochemistry, electrolytes, power cell

中图分类号: 

  • O646.5