化工进展 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (S2): 372-378.doi: 10.16085/j.issn.1000-6613.2020-1317

• 资源与环境化工 • 上一篇    下一篇

油气集输过程中含油污泥减量化

张军1(), 贾悦1, 刘博1, 张则俊2, 安静1, 蔡贤明1   

  1. 1.新疆油田公司工程技术研究院,新疆 克拉玛依 834000
    2.新疆油田公司陆梁油田作业区,新疆 克拉玛依 834000
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-13 出版日期:2020-11-20 发布日期:2020-11-17
  • 通讯作者: 张军 E-mail:zhjunmail@126.com
  • 作者简介:张军(1979—),男,工程师,研究方向为油田安全环保技术。E-mail:zhjunmail@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国石油新疆油田分公司科技计划(210020580001)

Oily sludge reduction in oil and gas gathering process

Jun ZHANG1(), Yue JIA1, Bo LIU1, Zejun ZHANG2, Jing AN1, Xianming CAI1   

  1. 1.Engineering Technology Research Institute of Xinjiang Oilfield Company, Karamay 834000, Xinjiang, China
    2.Luliang Oilfield Operation District,Xinjiang Oilfield Company, Karamay 834000, Xinjiang, China
  • Received:2020-07-13 Online:2020-11-20 Published:2020-11-17
  • Contact: Jun ZHANG E-mail:zhjunmail@126.com

摘要:

集输过程中的含油污泥具有成分复杂、含液率高、乳化胶结稳定等特性,占油田危险废物新增量的约60%,是污染防治的重点。近年来,学者们开展了大量“调质-固液分离”减量化技术降低其环境风险和处置成本,但仍存在需要针对含油污泥不同来源优选相匹配的减量化调质方法和装置的难题。为此,本文回顾了氧化、破乳、絮凝、干化/半干、超声波、微波等化学与物理调质方法,离心机、叠螺机、压滤机3种固液分离装置研究进展,通过分别对各种调质方法及装置的对比分析,重点阐述了其作用机理、优缺点、适用对象。其中化学调质方法中破乳氧化、加酸更适用于高含聚油泥;表面活性剂破乳需加热,可与超声波相结合;有机和无机絮凝剂配合可提高罐底泥中油回收效果;干化/半干化法受经济效益制约。在文献基础上,认为未来应加强生物表面活性剂、生物电化学系统、椭圆叠螺机、基于固液分离装置数值模型基础上的设计与优化软件、多学科相结合的减量化耦合技术研究。

关键词: 含油污泥, 离心分离, 调质, 乳液, 胶体, 表面活性剂

Abstract:

The oily sludge in the process of gathering and transporting accounts for about 60% of the new increment of oilfield hazardous waste, which is the focus of pollution control. Oily sludge has the characteristics of complex composition, high liquid content, stable emulsification and cementation. In recent years, researchers have studied a large number of "conditioning solid-liquid separation" reduction technology to reduce the environmental risk and disposal cost of oily sludge. However, it is still a difficult problem to optimize and match the methods and devices for the reduction and conditioning of oily sludge from different sources. In this paper, the chemical and physical conditioning methods, such as oxidation, demulsification, flocculation, drying/semi drying, ultrasonic and microwave, and the research progress of three solid-liquid separation devices, such as centrifuge, screw stacking machine and filter press, are summarized. Through the comparison and analysis of various chemical conditioning methods and devices, the mechanism, advantages and disadvantages, and applicable objects are mainly elaborated. The analysis showed that: among the chemical conditioning methods, demulsification oxidation and acid addition are more suitable for high polymer oil sludge; surfactant demulsification needs heating, which can be combined with ultrasonic method; the combination of organic and inorganic flocculants can improve the recovery rate of oil in tank bottom sludge; to a certain extent, the drying/semi drying method is restricted by the economic benefits. On the basis of previous studies, the design of numerical models such as biosurfactant, bioelectrochemical system, elliptical helix machine and centrifuge should be strengthened. Furthermore, the software is further optimized, and the coupling technology of multi-disciplinary reduction is studied.

Key words: oily sludge, centrifugation, chemical conditioning, emulsions, colloid, surfactants

中图分类号: 

  • X741