化工进展 ›› 2021, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (5): 2762-2773.doi: 10.16085/j.issn.1000-6613.2020-1299

• 资源与环境化工 • 上一篇    下一篇

油气田含油污泥生物处理技术研究进展

包清华1,2(), 黄立信3(), 修建龙3, 俞理3, 崔庆锋3, 马原栋3, 伊丽娜3   

  1. 1.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    2.中国科学院大学渗流流体力学研究所,河北 廊坊 065007
    3.中国石油勘探 开发研究院,北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-09 出版日期:2021-05-06 发布日期:2020-10-30
  • 通讯作者: 黄立信 E-mail:baoqinghua@petrochina.com.cn;huanglixin69@petrochina.com.cn
  • 作者简介:包清华(1991—),女,博士研究生,研究方向为含油污泥生物处理。E-mail:baoqinghua@petrochina.com.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国石油天然气集团公司-俄罗斯天然气公司科技合作项目(GJ11601)

Development in the biological treatment of oily sludge in oil and gas fields

BAO Qinghua1,2(), HUANG Lixin3(), XIU Jianlong3, YU Li3, CUI Qingfeng3, MA Yuandong3, YI Lina3   

  1. 1.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    2.Institute of Porous Flow & Fluid Mechanics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Langfang 065007, Hebei, China
    3.PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2020-07-09 Online:2021-05-06 Published:2020-10-30
  • Contact: HUANG Lixin E-mail:baoqinghua@petrochina.com.cn;huanglixin69@petrochina.com.cn

摘要:

油气田含油污泥是石油钻井、运输、储存过程中产生的主要污染物。随着油气田开发的逐步深入,含油污泥所带来的生产和环境矛盾越来越突出。原有的含油污泥处理方式已经不适用新的环保要求。目前,物理化学处理方法初步实现了含油污泥减量化和原油资源回收,但其并不能从根本上去除含油污泥的石油污染物,甚至有可能造成二次污染。生物处理方法有低毒、环保、效率高等特点,具有较广泛的应用前景。本文介绍了含油污泥的来源、特征、处理标准和环境影响。将生物处理技术分为生物表面活性剂(BSF)洗油法和生物降解法,并从BSF的类型和特性、洗油机理、降解工艺、降解菌、对处理效果的影响因素以及BSF增强生物降解作用等方面进行了详细阐述。文章指出BSF洗油法主要应用于高含油污泥(含油率≥6%)的处理,含油率可降到2%以下;对于低含油污泥(含油率≤6%)采用微生物降解技术处理,可达到0.3%的生态标准。生物处理技术是最有前景的满足资源回收的环保型的含油污泥处理技术。

关键词: 含油污泥, 生物表面活性剂, 洗油, 生物降解, 生物修复

Abstract:

Oily sludge in oil and gas fields is the main pollutant in the process of oil drilling, transportation, and storage. With the deepening development of oil and gas fields, the contradiction between oil production and environmental pollution is becoming increasingly noticeable. The original oily sludge treatment methods are no longer suitable for new environmental requirements. At present, physical and chemical treatment methods have initially achieved oily sludge reduction and crude oil resource recovery, but they cannot fundamentally remove petroleum pollutants in oily sludge, and may even cause secondary pollution. Biological treatment methods have the characteristics of low toxicity, environmental friendliness and high efficiency, as well as have extremely wide application prospects. In this paper, the origin, characteristics, treatment standards and environmental impact of oily sludge were briefly introduced. The biological treatment technology is divided into BSF oil washing and the biodegradation. The types and characteristics of BSF, oil washing mechanism, degradation process, degrading bacteria, influencing factors on treatment effect and BSF enhancing biodegradation were described in detail. BSF oil washing method is mainly applied to the treatment of oily sludge with an oil content more than 6%, and the oil content can be reduced to less than 2%. For oily sludge with an oil content less than 6%, the ecological standard of 0.3% can be reached by microbial degradation technology. Biological treatment technology is the most promising oily sludge treatment technology that can meet resource recovery and environmental protection.

Key words: oily sludge, bio-surfactant, oil washing, biodegradation, bioremediation

中图分类号: 

  • X74