化工进展 ›› 2022, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (12): 6557-6572.DOI: 10.16085/j.issn.1000-6613.2022-0430

• 资源与环境化工 • 上一篇    下一篇

超疏水三维多孔材料在乳化液油水分离中的应用研究进展

梁格(), 黄翔峰, 刘婉琪, 熊永娇, 彭开铭()   

  1. 同济大学环境科学与工程学院,上海 200092
  • 收稿日期:2022-03-21 修回日期:2022-04-21 出版日期:2022-12-20 发布日期:2022-12-29
  • 通讯作者: 彭开铭
  • 作者简介:梁格(1999—),男,硕士研究生,研究方向为油水分离。E-mail:2030555@tongji.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    上海自然科学基金(20ZDR1461200);国家自然科学基金(51978490);国家十三五水专项武进项目课题三子课题二(2017ZX07202003-02)

A review of superhydrophobic three-dimensional porous materials for oil/water separation of emulsions

LIANG Ge(), HUANG Xiangfeng, LIU Wanqi, XIONG Yongjiao, PENG Kaiming()   

  1. College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
  • Received:2022-03-21 Revised:2022-04-21 Online:2022-12-20 Published:2022-12-29
  • Contact: PENG Kaiming

摘要:

超疏水三维多孔材料基于润湿性和毛细作用可有效吸附回收水中浮油,近年来在乳化液的油水分离中也得到应用。本文重点从超疏水三维多孔材料的设计制备、对乳化液的油水分离效果、油滴在材料中的分离机制3个方面展开分析与评价。文中指出:材料设计制备方面,以海绵为主的多孔材料主要通过修饰低表面能物质和构建粗糙结构获得超亲油疏水性,疏水改性后的材料具备较高的油吸附容量(31~131g/g)。乳化液油水分离评价方面,超疏水三维多孔材料处理的对象多为O/W模型乳化液,油浓度低、表面活性剂浓度低、液滴粒径为微米级,少见对实际乳化液的处理;应用方式包括基于吸附作用的浸泡处理和吸附协同拦截作用的过滤处理两类;分析发现影响油水分离效果的关键是材料的孔径、表面疏水性和带电性。作用机制方面,疏水多孔材料吸附乳化油的作用过程仍停留在理论推测层面,主要观点为材料通过笼状孔道结构和疏水表面高效捕集和吸附油滴,油滴聚并破乳形成油层而被分离。虽然超疏水三维多孔材料在乳化液油水分离应用研究中取得了一定进展,但仍需探究其对实际废乳化液的适用性,设计开发连续分离设备以实现工程应用;结合原位观测、数值模拟、力学解析等方法解析油滴在多孔材料中的迁移转化规律和关键环节,以揭示其作用机制。

关键词: 乳化液, 超疏水, 多孔材料, 吸附, 聚并

Abstract:

Superhydrophobic three-dimensional(3D) porous materials can effectively adsorb and recover oil slick based on special wettability and capillary action, which have recently been applied in oil/water separation of emulsions. In this paper, the preparation methods of superhydrophobic 3D porous materials are summarized, and the oil/water separation efficiency of emulsion and the action mechanism of oil droplets in the material are analyzed. In terms of preparation methods, porous materials represent by sponge mainly obtained super-hydrophobicity by modifying with low surface energy substances and constructing rough structures. High adsorption capacities (31—131g/g) of oil are achieved as a result. As for the oil/water separation of emulsions, superhydrophobic 3D porous materials are mostly applied to oil-in-water model emulsions with low concentration of oil and surfactants, and containing micron-scale droplets, while the actual emulsions are rarely treated. The application methods included immersion and filtration based on adsorption and adsorption coupled with rejection, respectively. It is found that the key factors affecting the oil/water separation efficiency are pore size, hydrophobicity and surface electrical property of the materials. Furthermore, the process of adsorption of oil droplets by hydrophobic porous materials remain at a theoretical speculation level. The main view is that the materials efficiently trapped and adsorbed oil droplets by a synergy between the cage-like porous structure and hydrophobic surface. Then, the oil droplets coalesced to form oil layer and finally be removed. Although the superhydrophobic 3D porous materials made some progress in the oil/water separation of emulsions, it is still necessary to promote its applicability to actual waste emulsions, and design and develop continuous separation equipment to realize engineering application. The migration and transformation of oil droplets in porous materials and the key steps should be analyzed and identified by in-situ observation, numerical simulation and mechanical analysis to reveal the mechanism involved in depth.

Key words: emulsion, superhydrophobic, porous material, adsorption, coalescence

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