化工进展 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (2): 419-428.DOI: 10.16085/j.issn.1000-6613.2019-0861

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石油烃污染场地低温修复机制研究进展

姜岩(),周和平,张哲,刘红兵,沈顺祥   

  1. 重庆工商大学废油资源化技术与装备教育部工程研究中心,重庆 400067
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-28 出版日期:2020-02-05 发布日期:2020-03-12
  • 通讯作者: 姜岩
  • 作者简介:姜岩(1971—),教授,硕士生导师,研究方向为生物修复。E-mail:jiangyan@ctbu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(21376285);重庆市科技创新与应用发展专项(cstc2019jscx-msxmX0275);重庆市教委科学技术研究计划重点项目(KJZD-K201900804);重庆市研究生创新项目(CYS19342);重庆工商大学开放课题(fykfx201912)

Bioremediation of contaminated sites by petroleum hydrocarbon under low temperature environment

Yan JIANG(),Heping ZHOU,Zhe ZHANG,Hongbing LIU,Shunxiang SHEN   

  1. Engineering Research Center for Waste Oil Recovery Technology and Equipment of Ministry of Education, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing 400067, China
  • Received:2019-05-28 Online:2020-02-05 Published:2020-03-12
  • Contact: Yan JIANG

摘要:

生物修复一直是石油烃污染场地修复技术的研究热点,已经取得了很多实验和理论认知。但是,现有研究主要集中在中高温环境下,而在实地修复中,生物修复往往要跨越中低温期,此时,无论是土著还是外源微生物的生理特性都将发生改变;由于细胞活力低,这一时期经常在修复过程中被忽视,或是采用缺乏针对性的常规工艺而事倍功半。本文围绕低温生物修复技术,概述了低温石油烃降解微生物的研究现状,重点介绍了长链烷烃、苯及其同系物、多环芳烃三大类典型石油烃的低温代谢机制和主要代谢途径;在此基础上,从脂肪酸的组成、蛋白的低温表达、特殊蛋白的合成以及酶的结构适应性等4个方面,进一步剖析了低温环境下细胞生理生化特性的微观变化,这种低温微生物独有的适冷机制决定了其特有的低温降解特性,并成为低温修复的核心。分析表明,低温期生物修复应该得到足够重视:一方面,充分而合理地利用漫长的低温期,针对性实施低温期受控修复,提高营养盐利用率,可以有效提高生物修复效率;另一方面,深入研究细胞低温代谢和适冷机制有助于指导低温修复手段的实施,将成为切实可行的发展方向。

关键词: 低温菌, 低温修复, 代谢机制, 适冷机制, 石油烃降解

Abstract:

Bioremediation has been a research focus on site remediation contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbon, and so far, much experimental and theoretical knowledge has been gained on it. However, the current researches are conducted in optimal temperature environment. In fact, bioremediation often undergoes mid-low temperature period in site when physiological characteristics will change for both indigenous and exogenous microorganisms. Due to low cell activity, the mid-low temperature period in the remediation process has always been overlooked, resulting in the use of conventional technology to remediate contaminated sites with poor efficiency and the lack of pertinence. In this paper, the research status of microorganisms degrading petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperature was summarized, focusing on low-temperature metabolic mechanism and main metabolic pathways of three kinds of typical petroleum hydrocarbons, namely, long-chain alkane, benzologue and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. On this basis, the microscopic changes of cell physiological-biochemical characteristics under different temperature conditions have been further analyzed from the following four different aspects: fatty acid composition, protein expression in low temperature, the synthesis of specific protein, and adaptability of the enzymes structure. It was shown that the unique cold-adapted mechanism of low-temperature microorganisms determines its unique low-temperature degradation characteristics and consequently becomes the core of low-temperature remediation technology. In brief, low temperature bioremediation should deserve adequate attention. For one thing, the bioremediation efficiency can be effectively improved by making full and reasonable use of controlled restoration in lengthy low-temperature period to improve the utilization rate of nutrient salt; and for the other, it will be a feasible development direction to study the cell metabolism and cold-adapted mechanisms to guide the implementation of low-temperature bioremediation.

Key words: cold-adapted microorganisms, low-temperature bioremediation, metabolic mechanism, cold-adaptation mechanism, petroleum hydrocarbon degradation

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